I have a couple of questions on this part, and the best way to pre-process the incoming signal.
I have a low frequency AC sensor that is single ended and requires AC coupling. With the present circuit, I'm using an ADA4096 (due to it's excellent OVP) as a buffer. I then go to a AD8616 Bessel-Butterworth LPF. From there, it goes to another programmable gain stage, and then into a 12 bit micro ADC. Total gain is about 80dB.
I want to change this to take advantage of any common mode noise from the sensor by going to a differential circuit, then to a 16 bit ADC. After reading through AD data sheets, it appears the best device for the frequencies I am working at is the AD7684.
I realize that at some point I need to go from single-ended to differential. However, I still want to have the OVP from the ADA4096 in the circuit, at least as a buffer for the sensor.
So...at which point does it make sense to go from single-ended, to differential, to take advantage of the benefits of differential input?
Where should the filtering and gain stage be, and should it be differential? I have a requirement for filtering off 60Hz signals, although I am working below that. So if the filter were differential, it would need to be order 8 to 10 to provide the same transition I presently have.
The data sheet for the ADA4941 makes it an ideal candidate for a pre-ADC buffer and gain amplifier.
What will be lost in using differential if I were to input buffer, filter, gain and then go single-ended to differential using the ADA4941, vs differential from the input right through - keeping in mind I still need to AC couple and have OVP.
Thanks for any advice or opinions on this!
Apologies for the delayed response.
I'd recommend a newer ADC such as the AD7989-1, an 18-bit part with the same throughput as AD7684. You might also want to check the 16-bit AD7916 that has higher throughputs. The best place in the signal chain to implement single-ended to differential conversion is at the ADC driver. The ADA4940 should be suitable for this application. You may refer to this article here, it includes a discussion on a SE-to-Differential data acquisition system with the ADA4940 used as a driver.
High order filtering, referred to your 60-Hz low-pass filtering, i.e., you should implement the Bessel-Butterworth LPF earlier in the signal chain, and definitely not at the input to the ADC.
We also add a single-pole RC filter in between the ADC driver and the ADC (when using a differential ADC driver, placing one filter on each output). This is used to limit wide-band noise and to reduce the settling artifacts caused by the switching of the capacitive input of the ADC, but it would not be useful for the 60 Hz LPF mentioned earlier. This is because this filter’s time constant must be short enough to allow these settling artifacts to settle to the resolution of the ADC (16 bits for the AD7684 and AD7916 and 18 bits for the AD7989-1). For example, with a 30 Hz maximum input tone at 5 Vp, a filter using R = 160ohms and C = 2.7nF should work. Here's an article which has an in-depth look at how to select the RC components.