Datasheet is not complete clear to me.
Does this opamp only work with a negative voltage at v- or can it also work with 0 VDC at v- and 5 VDC at v+?
Sure. About 1970, with the 741 op amp, etc. analog signal paths were designed with +/-15V.
PMI introduced the OP07 in 1974. Since that time, we have done several more generations of the
OP07 -> OP77 -> OP177 -> OP1177. The OP2177 is the dual version, and the OP4177 is the quad.
It is not too common to see systems that run on ground and +24V. There are still quite a few
systems that run on +/-15V and +/-12V. Of course, with the scaling in CMOS technology,
the world went to ground and 5V, then ground and 3.3V. The CMOS processes have breakdown
voltages approx 6V or less. No one does analog with +/-2.5V, so the CMOS op amps
usually have spec tables at ground and +5V or ground and 2.7V, or 3.0 or 3.3V.